Wednesday, June 24, 2020
Macroeconomic Impact of Population Aging and Globalization (Article Sample) Content: Student NameProfessors NameEconomicsDateMacroeconomic Impact of Population Aging and GlobalizationThe status of the US as the world's strongest economic power, which accounts for about one-fifth of the annual world income, is based on a large, resource-rich and well-developed country. It also boasts of a quickly ageing population as a larger fraction of its citizens are attaining their retirement ages. Sheiner observes that demographic change is due to occur and this poses problems for those institutions and policy areas that arose in an era when the population perspectives were still quite different (218).As each decade passes, the American population has grown. In 2010 there were 308.7 million people in the US, 27.3 million more than in 2000. The main reason for the growth was the Hispanic population. The census confirms the rapid population growth of minorities in the United States. In future, the minorities could make up a larger fraction of Americans, than the ma jority white, non-Hispanic population. The population grew mainly in the South and West, from 281.4 million to 308.7 million, representing an appreciation of 9.7 percent.Although this is the third largest growth in history, the rate of population growth is way lower than in the 1990s. Nevertheless, during the period the population increased significantly faster than Europe's, where the population only grew by 1.6 percent. In the long term, Europe's population will shrink, while the US population is expected to increase further, according to calculations by National Research Council (Sheiner 220).Despite the growth, the population of the United States is aging. In 2010, 74.2 million Americans were under 18 years old, representing 24 percent of the population and a historic low. The median age of the population climbed from 35.3 to 37.2 years - the highest in history. The aging of the company is also confirmed by the fact that the group of the 45- to 64-year-olds grew by 31.5 percent between 2000 and 2010, while the 18- to 44-year-olds only increased by 0.6 percent. The share of the elderly will continue to grow in the future because the so-called baby boomer generation is slowly heading towards the age of retirement. This situation in the US is similar to Europe, albeit less pronounced.Consequential to this situation, the United States suffers a risk of falling short of a labor force; this is cynical. Even in the health sector, the conditions will soon be entirely different without foreign influence. In a nutshell, the steady decline in existence would only relate to a continuously rising productivity, which would only be possible because the United States wage level will be exposed to the global dumping competition. An intact domestic market would not allow this absurd wage bond. But not even this is t...
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 641 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/10/10 Did you like this example? Basically, the APB is regarded as a document that defines the benefits, costs, schedule of an acquisition program and performance parameters while identifying milestones for gauging the programÃ¢â¬â¢s progress (Girard, 2015). The APB, in this case, is developed by the program manager (PM) before the actual start of the program. Therefore, the APB allows the PM to make an effective track of the programÃ¢â¬â¢s goal against any formal baseline (Girard, 2015). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Acquisition Program Baseline (APB) component" essay for you Create order The tracking will, therefore, alert the PM to any potential underlying problem that might arise in order to operate the program in an effective way so as to keep the program within its goal. The object of this work is to gather information in relation to the operational status of the ASA-ALT in relation to the APB components. The APB parameter values highly represent the program that is targeted to be produced or deployed. Considering the delivery of the systems in relation to the evolutionary acquisition strategy, the APB is associated with parameters for the next block (Girard, 2015). Following this, only those the APB contains specific parameters that are not associated with the thresholds. Therefore, if the threshold is not met at any point, the ASA-ALT will consider reevaluating the program and focus of different alternative concepts or approaches based on the program design. The summation of the performance parameter should exist as a minimum number that is needed to characterize the major drivers of the general operational performance process and supportability (Girard, 2015). Based on this, the value of a threshold or objective in the APB should not be different from the threshold value. With the increase in time, the number of performance parameter tends to increase in time (Girard, 2015). Thus, the ASA-ALT PM will use a minimum number of well-defined operational level, performance measurement in order to get information on the needed capability on the program. Additionally, the schedule parameters on the ASA-ALT will minimally involve the initiation date of the program, important decision points and the achievement of the initial operating capability (Girard, 2015). In relation to this, the ASA-ALT will, therefore, evaluate program schedule criteria that involve crucial date on the programÃ¢â¬â¢s schedule. The cost parameter is also taken into consideration through which it is broken down into various type of costs. These cost parameters include the evaluation cost, procurement costs, and military construction cost. Similarly, the operating and support and the cost incurred in the acquisition of items with operations and maintenance funds are taken into consideration. The Army is faced by cost parameters whereby cost figures reflect realistic estimates of the total program that is associated with a thorough assessment of risk. The impact on the underlying costs can be mitigated by the PM through refinement of the procurement costs in relation to the contractor actual costs associated with component advanced developments system demonstration and system integration (Girard, 2015). The PM will, therefore, involve a refined estimate in the following submittal of the APB. Based on this, the amounts budgeted will not at any point exceed the total cost thresholds in the APB (Girard, 2015). The existing cost parameter is applicable to additional payments to the military and the acquisition cost of the items procured with the defense working capital funds. The program deviation exists when the PM has the reason in believing that the current estimate for the program indicates that a performance, schedule and the threshold cost value will not be achievable (Girard, 2015). Thus, the PM shall immediately inform the Total Army on the occurrence of such deviation. Also, the PM should give adequate and reliable reasons for the occurrence of such program deviation while stating the preferable actions to be undertaken in bringing the program back within the baseline parameters. If the program deviation persists, a new APB level program will be conducted for the Total Army with additional review of the PM baseline.
Monday, May 18, 2020
People who become gay or lesbian have to deal with the rejection from their family members and all the problems they face, due to what their sexual identity is. This problem leads into the book Metamorphosis, which Franz Kafka used many different characters, the plot, and setting to show many allegories. However, this is about how Gregor is facing this problem of being a bug, which is an allegory representing someone who is gay or lesbian and facing the same problems. It is shown through how his parents grieve for him, his eating disorder, and how his family is trying to ignore him. Gregor coming out of his room as a bug is an allegory of a family member coming out and telling their family that they are gay or lesbian. Grieving of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But Gregor begins to like different foods, that he does not normally eat. It is like when Gays and lesbians have trouble eating, due to all of the stress. Since everyone around them, even their family is ignoring them and l ook poorly upon them. This is what Gregor feels, he is stressed out about what has happened to him and that his family is not helping him at all. That is why he is not eating his food, while his family still does not help him and it eventually leads up to his death. His family begins to try and ignore that he is there and hope it goes away. His family is trying to ignore that he is there, Other times he was not at all in the mood to look after his family, he was filled with simple rage about the lack of attention he was shownÃ¢â¬ ¦ (41). His family starts to go on with their lives and forget about Gregor, who is still in his room. They go off to work in different jobs, come home and take care of three gentlemen. His sister almost stops cleaning his room now and just quickly goes in and gets out to give him his food. Trying to get out and go off to do her work or something else. While Gregor is getting mad about getting no attention from his family. Like what happens with people who are gay or lesbian, their families try to forget what has happened to one of their family members. So they could get on with their lives and leave the Ã¢â¬Å"disgraceÃ¢â¬ of the family behind. Which is what is happening with Gregor and his family. His family isShow MoreRelated The Metamorphosis- Critical Essay718 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRichter agreed that Kafka was a very prominent figure in world literature and was amazed by his mechanics and word usage. I feel that his essay is supportive of KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s writing, but also leaves out many important details in its brevity. Richter did not include KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s flaws and tendencies in his essay. Helmut Richter analyzed the plot of The Metamorphosis in his essay. He depicts the main plot of the story to be GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s failure at his work, which leads to his death. The climax of the story starts offRead MoreEssay on Metamorphosis1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMetamorphosis In the short story, Metamorphosis, the narrator describes GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s new life as an insect. He then goes on to describe GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, Grete, with a reflection of GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion in the description. Kafka employs a number of stylistic devices including descriptive imagery, metaphors, and symbolism in the passage to describe the situation. While these devices on their own just provide a more complex method of painting the situation, the way they are assembled in the passage Read MoreMetamorphosis Alienation Essay970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka Alienation Essay Alienation is the primary theme in Kafkas The Metamorphosis. Much of early twentieth-century literature makes as its basic premise that man is alienated from his fellow humans and forced to work in dehumanizing jobs in order to survive. There is no choice for most in this matter. Gregor Samsa, the protagonist in The Metamorphosis, awakes from a dream to find he has become an insect. He wonders what happened, and tells himself it is notRead More Essay on Metamorphosis of the Family in Kafkas Metamorphosis1868 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMetamorphosis of the Family in Kafkas Metamorphosis Ã Ã Ã In Franz Kafkas Metamorphosis, the nature of Gregor Samsas reality changes insignificantly in spite of his drastic physical changes. Gregors life before the metamorphosis was limited to working and caring for his family. As a traveling salesman, Gregor worked long, hard hours that left little time to experience life. He reflects on his life acknowledging the plague of traveling: the anxieties of changing trains, the irregular,Read MoreThe Metamorphosis Essay1588 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSociety Determines Identity, Not Individuals The Metamorphosis, a story written by Franz Kafka, is about the sudden transformation of Gregor Samsa into a bug. The narrator describes how GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation negatively affects his work, family, and social relationships; it also takes readers through GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s journey of trying to regain his humanity. Throughout the story, Gregor denies his loss of humanity and attempts to preserve his previous work and family relationships because these relationshipsRead MoreFranz Kafkas The Metamorphosis Essay1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn this paper I will interpret the short story, The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka. My purpose is to explain to my classmates the short storyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal what Kafka wanted to transmit to people. I want to expand more why this short story is considered one of the best poetic imagination works. In my research I expect to use KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s work, The Metamorphosis as my primary source. Important other sources include essay critiques from different editors, which will help us to understandRead More The Metamorphosis Essay1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Metamorphosis The longer story The Metamorphosis, first published in 1971, was written by Franz Kafka. He was born in Prague in 1883 and lived until 1924, and he has written many other stories along with The Metamorphosis. The Metamorphosis appears to be a fantastic piece. After reading The Metamorphosis, I do believe that there are many similarities between magical realism and fantastic literature. Kafka showed many fantastic issues in The Metamorphosis. While reading The MetamorphosisRead MoreMetamorphosis Essay1033 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Franz Kafka wrote the famous Metamorphosis, I believe this short story to be integrated with the life Kafka once lived. In this paper, I intend on interpreting the metamorphosis that undergoes the Samsa family. In view of this, I asked myself an important question, what if I view Gregor SamsaÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation as a metaphor while considering Grete Samsa, GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, transformation as literal. In addition, there are four family members that make up the Samsas. Gregor Samas, being the protagonistRead MoreThe Metamorphosis Essay754 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Franz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s The Metamorphosis, Gregory Samsa is transformed into a giant bug. He wakes and wonders what has happened to him. As he is trying to get out of bed his mother comes to his door reminding him that he has to be at work. This alarmed others in the home so his father comes to check on him, then his sister, she whisp ered Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Å"Gregory, open the door, pleaseÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ (Kafka, 2006, p.1968). He is trying every way he can to get himself together to get out of bed but is finding it difficult as he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreMetamorphosis into Humanity Essay714 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFranz KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s uses of symbolism throughout Metamorphosis help the audience grip the appreciation of GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s drive towards humanity and independence. The transformation in this book is used as a symbol for GregorÃ¢â¬â¢s metamorphosis to humanity. Even though none of us should ever wake up and experience the emotion of changing into a giant bug, the hardship Gregor felt is a sample that is relevant to us in different ways. Throughout the story, we see numerous symbols that show the ultimate symbol of
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Unit 302 Task A Guidance You are going to be a mentor for a new social care worker as part of their induction process. Part of your role is to help them prepare for the review after their probation period. Ai Create a guide for the new social care worker about how to reflect on their practice. The guide must include the headings listed with an explanation of each. a) What is reflective practice? Ans. Reflective practice is a way of learning from own experience to improve the way we work. The way things are done may not always be the only way to do them... Reflecting to see this helps identify gaps and areas that can be improved. A guide for new social worker Description what happened? Feelings whatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some of the areas of a care worker may be appreciated by the staff or even service user- which better a care worker can continue in their practice. Task B Personal development plan (PDP) Bi Design a template for a personal development plan (PDP) that you could use to improve your learning, development and professional practice. For each heading in the template, provide a brief summary describing what should be included. A Personal Development Plan Name: MD Azharul Islam Workplace: Azalea House Supervisor: Jan West Long-term goals (1Ã¢â¬â5 years): To be a Manager Medium-term goals (6Ã¢â¬â12 months): To be a Senior support worker Short-term goals (next 6 months): To complete related courses What are my development objectives? Priority What activities do I need to undertake to achieve my objectives? What support/resources do I need to achieve my objectives Target date for achieving my objectives Actual date of achieving my objectives I want to complete my Adult Social care and Diploma 3 High * 6 hours study time each week and organise course study plan. *Complete two unit at every 3 weeks , and arranging regular assessment of competence. Course is on going with Rathbone supported by Joanne Foster June 2015 I want to be Senior Support worker High * Apply for new jobs * Identify document related work at work place and help with them *Show MoreRelatedNvq 3 Unit 302 - All Essay6644 Words Ã |Ã 27 PagesUnit 302. 1.1 Summarise entitlement and provision for early years. In 2006 all 3/4 year olds were entitled to up to 12.5 hours a week during term time free early years education. This was increased to 15 hours a week in September 2011. There are free pre-schools which are run by the local authorities that children can attend for 3 hours a day once they have turned 3 or if children are already in a day nursery then they will have 15 hours a week deducted off their bill the term after the childRead Moreunit 302 - Evaluate and improve own performance in a business environment745 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Evaluate and Improve own Performance in a Business Environment Unit 302 1.1 The purpose of continuously improving your own performance is business is to help improve the overall performance of the business. This will also improve your own job satisfaction and overall employability. There are three main ways you can improve your own performance. The first is to set aside time with a good manager, who can assess your work and give you advice on how to complete that piece of work. This canRead MoreA1 Cava2459 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesUnit 301 Understanding the Principles and Practices of Assessment |1.1 Explain the roles functions of: | |initial assessment in identifying learner needs | |formative assessment in tracking learner progress | |summativeRead MoreAssessment Process2463 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Level 3 Certificate in Assessing Vocational Achievement. Assessors workbook Name: QIT: Start date: Planned end date: Content: Qualification outline P. 3 The assessment process P.4 Types of assessment P.5-6 Concepts and principles of assessment P.7-9 Stages of assessment P.10 Understand how to plan assessment P.11-13 Holistic assessment P.14 Risks of assessment P.15-16 Understand how to make assessment decision P.17 UnderstandRead MoreCG Assessor Award Handbook Essay20565 Words Ã |Ã 83 PagesLevel 3 4 Awards Certificates in Assessment and Quality Assurance Qualification handbook for centres 6317 6317-30, 6317-31, 6317-32, 6317-33, 6317-40, 6317-41, 6317-42 February www.cityandguilds.com February 2011 Version 1.3 ( February 2011) About City Guilds City Guilds is the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s leading provider of vocational qualifications, offering over 500 awards across a wide range of industries, and progressing from entry level to the highest levels of professional achievement. With over 8500
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Family and Kin The use of the term family has many different interpretations depending on the person who is using the word. When some persons discuss family they are referencing individuals who are linked by blood ties and or marriage. Blood ties are understood as persons who have immediate identifiable genetic links. These links are close and reference parents, siblings and other close relations. Marriage involves social and political exchanges that allow parties who are not linked by blood to operate as though they are. This entire arrangement of blood links and marital ties are kinship systems (Burton Stack 1992). Kinship systems are at times very complex to understand and explain. Family and kin form the basic unit around which societies are organized. People live in families and the members of the family may vary greatly. The family that we are born into is considered our family of origin. The family of origin is important because it is in this family that we begin to understand ourselves and the world by extension. The family of origin is a powerful agent of socialization of the individual. Family of origin may take on many different forms. The family of origin may be a traditional family. The traditional family is often a nuclear family. In the nuclear family, parents live with their immediate children. Other individuals have extended families. Extended families consist of persons who are related by blood. The gender composition of nuclear families is constantlyShow MoreRelatedSocial Class And Family Relationships855 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWe all have a family, but we all have grown up in a different way. Social class plays a huge role in family life. Three of the connections between social class and family include kin, child rearing, and education levels. To begin, kin is a part of the family, but there is a difference between kin ship among the poor and near poor. Kin is an important part of the family life because it is the connection between family and, sometimes, wealth. Who people associate in times of need and support greatlyRead MoreThe Effects of Industrialisation on the Structure of the Family983 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIndustrialisation on the Structure of the Family The Industrial Revolution was from 1750s - 1850s, which had four main effects. One was the Economic system becoming industrial from agriculture, the second was Mechanisation meaning production in factories becoming more efficient, the third was Urbanisation and the fourth was population explosion - low mobility rate and higher birth rate. Tallcott Parsons (1950s) believed that the extended family in pre Industrial BritainRead MorePreconceived Notions of Western-Europe1165 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe Kamea this is an important way of forming kin ties and must be recognized as such. Although different types of trees are planted to form this bond, the Yangwa tree is the most important. A man plants this type of ficus from the cuttings of his own tree after the birth of his son. The tree takes approximately 10 to 15 years to reach maturation, which reflects the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s transition to manhood. The tree serves not only has means of creating kinship ties, but it is also important in male initiationRead MoreInterracial Intimacy : The Regulation Of Race Romance, Antimiscegenation Laws And The Enforcement Of Racial Boundaries Essay1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSummary: In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Interracial Intimacy: The Regulation of Race Romance, Antimiscegenation Laws and the Enforcement of Racial Boundaries,Ã¢â¬ Rachael E. Moran writes about the problems blacks and Asians experienced in regards to sex, marriage, and family. Laws were created addressing interracial sex and marriage with the goal of keeping whites superior to all other races. Blacks and Asians encountered many restrictions regarding whom they could marry and have sexual relations with. Meanwhile whiteRead MoreRelations Between Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Essay798 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages 1.Psychopathology 2.dichotomy between normal and abnormal C. Viewing within a cultural and social setting D. Based on the diaries of women from 35 families from 1760s to 1880s 1.Represents brood range of women 2.Middle class III. Sensual and platonic A. Sarah Butler Wister and Jeannie Field Musgrove 1. Met while families vacationed; spent 2 years together at boarding school 2. throughout life wrote to eachother talking of their deep affection and their anguish whenRead MoreInstitutional Systems And The Selection Pressures Of Reproduction, Population And Regulation962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesway, when it is needed to regulate the individuals in society, religion could help fulfill the selection pressures of regulation. Education, like kinship, helps to reproduce culturally and also regulate the roles of individuals. Just like these three institutions, the others also play a role in resolving other selection pressures. Kinship, religion and education, however, will be the main focus of this paper given that they are the institutions that mainly aid to the selection pressures of reproductionRead More Observations in All Our Kin1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswomen, and children within the social-cultural network of the black urban familyÃ¢â¬ (28), her methods are not merely those of an outside observer spouting back information, but truly that of an actively engaged participant. Staying true to the guideli nes of participant observation studies, Stack did not attempt to isolate or manipulate the culture she saw, and instead of donning the lab coat, as it were, and playing the role of the experimenting scientist, or simply sneaking in, Stack was very humanRead MoreEssay on The Significance of Family and Kinship671 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Significance of Family and Kinship One of the most important and essential things that everyone must have in order to live a great and joyful life is family. One must follow values to be successful in life, and one must also support their family to keep that success advancing toward the future. In David W. McCurdyÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Ã¢â¬Å"Family and Kinship in Village India,Ã¢â¬ it discusses the significance of how a successful family is formed by tradition, preparation, and patience. The article describesRead MoreThe Movement Of Positive Psychology1151 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswe are shifting our focus from the negative aspects of our life to the mores positive aspects such as thinks that make us happy and gives our life meaning. Social-Cognitive theories of prosocial behavior Ã¢â¬ ¢ Social learning theory emphasis the important of internal cognitive processes. It states that people can learn vicariously through observation and verbal behavior. Ã¢â¬Å"Imitation is viewed as a critical process in the socialization of moral behavior and standardsÃ¢â¬ (Eisenberg, Fabes, Spinrad, 2006Read MoreFamily Role1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis five-page paper discusses the nature of the family in the developing world and examines whether the family is more important, less important, or neutral in the movement from technologically simple or agrarian societies to industrial societies. The Role of the Family Family systems, like biological organisms, evolve with time and circumstance. It seems readily evident from an examination of the nature and role of the family in the developing world that form may indeed follow function
string(119) " statistical noise in the database makes the input perturbation an important method in the enhancement of the privacy\." Abstract As the statistical databases consist of important and sensitive information, the preservation of the privacy in these databases is of extremely significance. Despite the complexity of the statistical databasesÃ¢â¬â¢ protection, there are diverse sorts of mechanisms which can keep out the confidential data. This report discusses methods as data perturbations, query restriction methods and differential privacy which provide privacy in the statistical databases. We will write a custom essay sample on Private statistical database or any similar topic only for you Order Now Keywords: statistical databases, privacy, input perturbation, output perturbation, differential privacy. 1. Introduction Nowadays, there is a wide-spread access to data. Having a lot of advantages to omnipresent access of information, there is also the possibility to break the privacy of individuals. In the statistical databases, personal data with very large number of individuals is stored. The statistical databases contain multiple statistical information. They give to their users the ability to acquire this information and also to protect the privacy of individuals. However, supporting security in the statistical databases against the revealing of confidential data is complicated and ambitious task. This problem of privacy in the statistical databases has expanded in the recent years. This report will examine the main methods for providing privacy in the statistical databases. 2. Body 2.1. Definition of statistical databases A statistical database is a set of data units which has permissive access to the statistical information connected to these data parts. The statistical database could be described as a database system which allows to its users to obtain only aggregate statistics for a subset of items introduced in the database . The statistical database posses limited querying interface which is restricted to operations such as sum, count, mean, etc. The statistical database also could be defined as query responsive algorithm which permits the users to access the content of the database through statistical queries . The statistical database is concerned with the multidimensional datasets and is related to the statistical summarizations of the data setsÃ¢â¬â¢ dimensions. The statistical database is mainly oriented to socio-economic databases which are normally the field of statisticians. An example of statistical database is the census data which is linked to collection of information about the assessment of the population trends. Another example of statistical database is the economic database which includes statistics for the industriesÃ¢â¬â¢ sales and income or statistics for the use and production of diverse products . 2.2. Privacy in statistical databases The privacy can be described as the right to specify what type of information about individuals or items is allowed to be shared with others. The benefits from analyzing the statistical database are very significant but the release of the information from this database could cause a lot of problems, troubles and damages. Thus, one of the main aims of the statistical database is to ensure privacy of the information. To be an effective statistical database, it should protect all its records . As the statistical database should provide statistical information, it should not disclose private information on the items or individuals it refers to. The releasing of a statistical data may offend the privacy rights of the individuals. Therefore, the statistical database should follow some ethical and legal behavior to defend the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ records. For legal, ethical and professional grounds, the users of the statistical database are not authorized to receive special information on individual records. The statistical database should protect the sensitive information allowing its users to get aggregate information. The restricted access should be permitted either from the point of view of the groups of people to whom this information is available or from the point of view of the certain aspects of this information. However, it is possible sometimes when statistics are correlated, the sensitive information to be inferred. If a combination of aggregate queries is used to obtain information, we say that the information in the database is compromised and therefore the database is also compromised . The main duty for the privacy of statistical database is to find appropriate methods which could ensure that no queries are sufficient to infer the values of the protected records. 2.3. Methods for providing private statistical databases The following methods and techniques are used to secure the privacy in statistical databases. 2.3.1 Perturbation methods There are two main perturbation methods for preserving privacy in statistical databases. The first one is the input perturbation where the primary data is randomly modified and the results are calculated based on this modified data. The second perturbation method is the output perturbation which computes the results from the queries exactly from the actual data . In other words, the input perturbation is detected when the records are computed on the queries while the output perturbation is applied to the query result after computing it on the original data. The perturbation methods look for accomplishment of the masking of item or individualÃ¢â¬â¢s confidential information while trying to maintain the basic aggregate relationships of the statistical database. One of the main aims of these methods is to Ã¢â¬ËconcealÃ¢â¬â¢ particular confidential record. It is also necessary to notice that the perturbation techniques are not encryption techniques which first modify the data, t hen usually send it, receive it and finally decrypt it to the original data. The primary difficulty of these methods is to assure that the introduced error is within the satisfactory limits. There is an exchange between the level of protection that could be attained and the variance of the presented perturbation. 220.127.116.11 Input perturbation The fundamental idea behind this method is that the result which is returned by the queries is based on a perturbed data. This means that the primary data in the statistical database is not used to create query results. One side that is necessary to be taken into account is the duplicated database. This database, which is used to turn back to results, must maintain the similar statistical characteristics as the original database. This technique introduces random noise to the confidential information and thus protects the data. Adding statistical noise in the database makes the input perturbation an important method in the enhancement of the privacy. You read "Private statistical database" in category "Essay examples" The original database is generally changed into modified or perturbed statistical database which is afterwards accessible to the users. The input perturbation permits the users to access the necessary aggregate statistical information from the whole database when it makes changes to the original data. Therefore this process helps to protect the records . The records of the database contain values that are variations of their adequate values in the true database. As a whole this method tries to minimize the severe bias in the query results by allocating the corresponding bias in the data so that it could cancel out in the huge query sets. In the input perturbation, the data is perturbed for instance via swapping attributes or adding the random noise before this data releases the whole statistical database. There are two well-known subcategories in the input perturbation. The probability distribution interprets the statistical database as a sample from a given data that has a certain probability distribution . The main purpose is to transform the primary statistical database with a different sample which is from the same probability distribution. This input perturbation creates a substitute database from the original one. This method is also called data swapping. The second subcategory is the fixed Ã¢â¬â data perturbation where the values of the records in the statistical database are perturbed only once and for all the records. Since the perturbation process is done only once, the repeated queries have consistent and logical values. This perturbation also constructs an alternative database as the probability distribution. This alternative database is created by changing the value of every record by a randomly produced perturbation value. The fixed Ã¢â¬â data perturbation could be applied to both numerical and categorical data. 18.104.22.168 Output perturbation The output perturbation differs notably from the input perturbation. In the input perturbation, the data is specified by all statistical features of the database. As longs as in the output perturbation, the perturbed results are directly introduced to the users . Another difference is that in the output perturbation, the problem with the bias is not as harsh as in the input perturbation. This is because the queries are based on the original values but not on the perturbed ones. The output perturbation method is based on calculation of the queriesÃ¢â¬â¢ responses on the statistical databases. This method adds the variance to the result. The result is produced on the original database however the noise is added to the result before to return it to the users. As the noise is not added to the database, this method generates results that include less bias that the input perturbation. It is necessary to note that if the noise is random then this noise could be reduced by performing th e same query over and over again. Some limitations exist. For example if there is very large number of queries to the statistical database, the amount of the noise added to the results should be also very large . The output perturbation has pretty low storage and computational overhead . This method is rather easy to carry out because it does not influence the query process. The output perturbation consists of different approaches as random sample queries, varying Ã¢â¬â output perturbation and rounding. The random sample queries technique shows a technique where a sample is created from the query set itself. The random sample queries method denies the intruder accurate control which covers the queries records . One drawback of this method is that it could not ensure enough certainty for users to prevent the confidential data. However, the random sample queries may present precise statistics for number of records. The USA Census Bureau for example mainly works with this technique to restrict the inference in their statistics records. Every reported query is founded upon a gratuitously chosen subpopulation of the query set. The USA Census Bureau is satisfied with this method and applies it very successfully in its activity. The second approach of the output perturbation is the varying Ã¢â¬â output perturbation . This method is suitable for the SUM, COUNT and PERCENTILE queries. The varying Ã¢â¬â output perturbation presents a varying perturbation to the data where random variables are used to calculate the answer to a variant of a given query. The last approach of output perturbation is the rounding where all queries are computed based on unbiased data. Afterwards the results are transformed before they are returned to the users. There are three types of rounding Ã¢â¬â systematic rounding, random rounding and controlled rounding . It is advisable to combine the rounding method with methods to provide more privacy in the statistical database. 2.3.2 Query restriction method The main idea of this method is even if the user does not want to receive deterministically right answers, these answers should be exact, for example numbers. As these answers to queries give the users forceful information, it might be important to deny the answers of some queries at certain stage to prevent the disclosure of a confidential data from the statistical database. The type or the number of queries that a user puts to the statistical database is restricted. This method discards a query which can be compromised. Nevertheless, the answers in the query restrictions are always precise. It could be concluded that the restricted group of the accepted queries considerably reduces the real usefulness of the statistical database. This method provides a protection for the statistical database by limiting the size of the query set, by controlling the overlap among the consecutive queries, by maintaining audit of any answered queries for every user and by making the small-sized cells inaccessible to users of the statistical database. There are five subcategories of the query restriction method Ã¢â¬â query set size control, query set overlap control, auditing, partitioning and cell suppression . 22.214.171.124 Query set size control method The query set size based method declines the answers to queries which have an influence on a small set of records. Fellegi  sets lower and upper limits for the size of the query answer which are based on the characteristics of the database. If the number of the returned records is not within these two limits, the request for the information could not be accepted and therefore the query answer may be denied. The query set size control method can be explained by the following equation : K ? |C| ? L Ã¢â¬â K,(1) where K is a parameter set by the database administrator, |C| is the size of the query set and L is the number of the entities in the database. The parameter K must satisfy the condition : 0 ? K ?(2) The main advantage of this method is its easy implementation. However, its robustness is low so it is advisable to use it in a combination with other methods. 126.96.36.199 Query set overlap method The query set overlap method permits only queries which have small overlap with formerly answered queries. Thus, the method controls the overlap over the queries. The lowest overlap control restrains the queries responses which have more than the predetermined number of records in common with every previous query . This surveillance is valuable in the defense againstthe trackers as a compromise tool. In spite is all, this method has some drawbacks . This query set overlap control is not enough effective when several users together try to compromise the statistical database. As well as the statistics for both a set and its subset are hard released which limits the efficiency of the database. 188.8.131.52 Auditing The third subcategory of the query restriction method is the auditing. It requires the maintenance of up-to-date logs of all queries which are made by every user. It also requires a continuous check-up for potential disclosure whenever a new query is published. One main advantage of this method is that it permits the statistical database to support the users with unperturbed data and ensure that the response will not be compromised. A disadvantage of the auditing method is its excessive CPU and the requirements for the storage and processing of the collected logs . 184.108.40.206 Partitioning The partitioning method groups the individual entities of a population in a number of reciprocally excessive subsets, known as atomic populations. Therefore, the records are stored in groups which consist of predetermined number of records . A query is permitted only to the entire groups, but not to a subset of a group. The statistical features of these atomic populations form the raw materials which are attainable to the database users. While the atomic populations include exactly one individual entity, a high level of protection can be achieved. A research, taken by Schlorer, found that there is an emergence of the large number of atomic populations with only one entity. The result of this will be a considerable information loss when these populations are clustered. One major drawback of this method is the retrieved value of the statistical information. When the database is partitioned, the statistical data is toughly obscured. This restricts the flow of potential wanted statist ical information by the users. In reality, the users may not have the chance to acquire the desired information. 220.127.116.11 Cell suppression The cell suppression method is frequently used by the census bureau for information which is published in tabular form. This technique protects the tabular data from a compromise. The main idea is to conceal the cells that can lead to a disclosure of a confidential data. In this way, the cell suppression minimizes the suppressed cells with private information. These cells are called primary suppressions. The other cells with non confidential data, which may be a threat and lead to a disclosure, should also be suppressed. These cells with non private information are called complementary suppressions. These complementary suppressions provide a pre-defined level of protection to the primary cells. 2.3.3 Differential privacy As Dalenims (1977) points out that an access to a statistical database should not be allowed to a user to acquire information about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s record which cannot be found out without the access of the database. This form of privacy is difficult to be achieved because of the auxiliary information. The auxiliary information is information which is available to the adversary without an access to the statistical database . For example, let presume that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s exact weight is considered as highly sensitive information and revealing this information is regarded as a privacy break. Next, it is assumed that the database provides the average weights of people of different nationalities. An adversary of the statistical database who has an access to the auxiliary information, that a particular British person is 10 kilogram thinner than the average French person, can learn the British personÃ¢â¬â¢s weight, as long as anyone gaining only the auxiliary information without having an access to the average weights, learns not much . This leads to the application of the concept of differential privacy. In spite of the fact that the differential privacy does not exclude a bad disclosure, it ensures the individual that his or her data will not be included in the database that produces it. The differential privacy is defined as one of the successful methods of providing privacy for the statistical databases. The basic description of the differential privacy is that it is focused on providing ways to increase the accuracy of the queries from the statistical database while trying to minimize the chances of recognizing its records. The differential privacy is a randomized algorithm which accepts the database as input and generates an output . A more precise definition of this method is the following formulation: A randomized function K that gives ?-differential privacy if for the databases D1 and D2, which only differ on at most one element and all S? Range (K), Pr [K (D1) ? S] ? exp (?) x Pr [K (D2) ? S](3) When this function K satisfies the above definition, it can ensure an individual that though this individual removes his or her data from the database, the outputs cannot become indicatively more or less acceptable. The differential privacy strives to guarantee an adjustment to the statistical disclosure controlÃ¢â¬â¢s problem. The differential privacy aims to publicly let out statistical information relating to a set of individuals without allowing a compromise for privacy. This method demands that there is an inherently the same probability distribution on the produced results. This probability distribution should be independent of whether each individual chooses or not the data set . This process is done indirectly as at the same time it addresses all potential forms of harm and good by concentrating upon the probability of every given output of a privacy method and upon the ways for changes of the probability when any row is added or deleted from the database. The statistical database is usually developed to reach social goals and the expanded participation in the database allows more precise analysis. Therefore, the differential privacy assures the support for the social goals by guaranteeing every individual that there is a quite little risk by connecting to the statistical database. The differential privacy has some advantages. Firstly, this privacy preserving method is independent of any extra and auxiliary information including also other databases which are available to the adversaries. Secondly, the differential privacy is easily implemented through the using of rather sample and general techniques. The last advantage is that the differential privacy usually permits very accurate analysis. 3. Conclusion To conclude, the statistical database provides to users statistical information for values which are based on various criteria. The field of the statistical database is highly important because it encompasses a broad variety of application areas which in principle deal with great amount of data. This statistical database may consist of confidential data which should be protected from unauthorized user access. It is very important to provide a precise statistical database with professional, legal and ethical responsibilities for privacy protection of the individual records. Providing security in the statistical database proves to be a complicated task. There is no single solution to this problem. Therefore, numerous methods and techniques are suggested to be used to ensure privacy in the statistical database. The analysis presented in the report shows that the perturbation methods, the query restriction methods and the differential privacy are clearly among the most promising methods for the private statistical database. References 1. N. Adam and J. Wortmann, Security Ã¢â¬â control Methods for Statistical Databases: A comprehensive Study. ACM Computing Surveys. 21 (1989). 2. I. Dinur and K Nissim, Revealing Information while Preserving Privacy Ã¢â¬â In proceeding of twenty-second. ACM SIGMOD Ã¢â¬â SIGACT-SIGART Symposium on Principle of Database Systems. (2003) p. 202-210. 3. A. Shoshani, OLAP and Statistical Databases: Similarities and Differences. (1997) p. 187 4. C. Guynes, Protecting Statistical Databases: A matter of privacy. Computer and Society. 19 (1989). 5. Z. Michalewicz, J-J Li and K-W Chen, A Genetic Approach for Statistical Database Security.13 (1990) p. 19 6. C. Dwork, F. McSherry, Calibrating Noise to Sensitivity in Private Data Analysis. Springer. 3876 (2006). 7. R. Wilson and P. Rosen, Protecting Data through Perturbation Techniques: The impact on knowledge discovery in database. Journal of Management. 14 (2003) p.13. 8. T. Wang and L. Liu, Output Privacy in Data Mining. ACM Transactions Database Systems. 36 (2011) p.11 9. S. Chawla, C. Dwork et al, Toward Privacy in Public Databases. Theory of Cryptography Conference. (2005). 10. J. Schatz, Survey of Techniques for Securing Statistical Database. University of California at Davis 11. D. Denning, Secure Statistical Databases with Random Sample Queries. ACM Transactions on Database Systems. 5 (1980) p. 292 12. I. Fellegi, On the question of statistical confidentiality. Journal of American Statistical Association. 67 (1972), 7-18. 13. D. Dobkin, A. Jones and R. Lipton, Secure Databases: Protection Against User Influence. ACM Transactions on Database Systems. 4 (1979). 14. C. Dwork, Differential Privacy. 33rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, part II (ICALP). Springer Verlang. (2006). 15. C. Dwork, Ask a better question, get a better answer Ã¢â¬â a new approach to private data analysis. 11th International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT ). Springer Verlang (2007). 16. C. Dwork, Differential privacy in New Settings. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. (2010). How to cite Private statistical database, Essay examples
18 minutes 610 minutes 206 minutes 34 minutes 6. The times taken by a phone operator to complete a call are 2,9,3,1,5 minutes respectively. What is the average time per call? a. b. c. d. 4 minutes 7 minutes 1 minutes 5 minutes 7. The times taken by a phone operator to complete a call are 2,9,3,1,5 minutes respectively. What is the median time per call? a. b. c. d. 5 minutes 7 minutes 1 minutes 4 minutes 8. Eric throws two dice, and his score is the sum of the values shown. Sandra throws one die, and her score is the square of the value shown. What is the probability that SandraÃ¢â¬â¢s score will be strictly higher than EricÃ¢â¬â¢s score? a. b. c. d. 137/216 17/36 173/216 5/6 9. What is the largest integer that divides all three numbers 23400,272304,205248 without leaving a remainder? a. b. c. d. 48 24 96 72 10. Of the 38 people in my office, 10 like to drink chocolate, 15 are cricket fans, and 20 neither like chocolate nor like cricket. How many people like both cricket and chocolate? a. We will write a custom essay sample on Number or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page b. c. d. 7 10 15 18 11. If f(x) = 2x+2 what is f(f(3))? a. b. c. d. 18 8 64 16 12. If f(x) = 7 x +12, what is f-1(x) (the inverse function)? a. b. c. d. (x-12)/7 7x+12 1/(7x+12) No inverse exists 13. A permutation is often represented by the cycles it has. For example, if we permute the numbers in the natural order to 2 3 1 5 4, this is represented as (1 3 2) (5 4). In this the (132) says that the first number has gone to the position 3, the third number has gone to the position 2, and the second number has gone to position 1, and (5 4) means that the fifth number has gone to position 4 and the fourth number has gone to position 5. The numbers with brackets are to be read cyclically. If a number has not changed position, it is kept as a single cycle. Thus 5 2 1 3 4 is represented as (1345)(2). We may apply permutations on itself If we apply the permutation (132)(54) once, we get 2 3 1 5 4. If we apply it again, we get 3 1 2 4 5 , or (1 2 3)(4) (5) If we consider the permutation of 7 numbers (1457)(263), what is its order (how many times must it be applied before the numbers appear in their original order)? a. b. c. d. 12 7 7! (factorial of 7) 14 14. What is the maximum value of x3y3 + 3 x*y when x+y = 8? a. b. c. d. 4144 256 8192 102 15. Two circles of radii 5 cm and 3 cm touch each other at A and also touch a line at B and C. The distance BC in cms is? a. b. c. d. ?60 ?62 ?68 ?64 16. In Goa beach, there are three small picnic tables. Tables 1 and 2 each seat three people. Table 3 seats only one person, since two of its seats are broken. Akash, Babu, Chitra, David, Eesha, Farooq, and Govind all sit at seats at these picnic tables. Who sits with whom and at which table are determined by the following constraints: a. Chitra does not sit at the same table as Govind. b. Eesha does not sit at the same table as David. c. Farooq does not sit at the same table as Chitra. d. Akash does not sit at the same table as Babu. e. Govind does not sit at the same table as Farooq. Which of the following is a list of people who could sit together at table 2? a. b. c. d. Govind, Eesha, Akash Babu, Farooq, Chitra Chitra, Govind, David. Farooq, David, Eesha. 17. There are a number of chocolates in a bag. If they were to be equally divided among 14 children, there are 10 chocolates left. If they were to be equally divided among 15 children, there are 8 chocolates left. Obviously, this can be satisfied if any multiple of 210 chocolates are added to the bag. What is the remainder when the minimum feasible number of chocolates in the bag is divided by 9? a. b. c. d. 2 5 4 6 18. Let f(m,n) =45*m + 36*n, where m and n are integers (positive or negative) What is the minimum positive value for f(m,n) for all values of m,n (this may be achieved for various values of m and n)? a. b. c. d. 9 6 5 18 19. What is the largest number that will divide 90207, 232585 and 127986 without leaving a remainder? a. b. c. d. 257 905 351 498 20. We have an equal arms two pan balance and need to weigh objects with integral weights in the range 1 to 40 kilo grams. We have a set of standard weights and can place the weights in any pan. . (i. e) some weights can be in a pan with objects and some weights can be in the other pan. The minimum number of standard weights required is: a. b. c. d. 4 10 5 6 21. A white cube(with six faces) is painted red on two different faces. How many different ways can this be done (two paintings are considered same if on a suitable rotation of the cube one painting can be carried to the other)? a. b. c. d. 2 15 4 30 22. How many divisors (including 1, but excluding 1000) are there for the number 1000? a. b. c. d. 15 16 31 10 23. In the polynomial f(x) =2*x^4 49*x^2 +54, what is the product of the roots, and what is the sum of the roots (Note that x^n denotes the x raised to the power n, or x multiplied by itself n times)? a. b. c. d. 27,0 54,2 49/2,54 49,27 24. In the polynomial f(x) = x^5 + a*x^3 + b*x^4 +c*x + d, all coefficients a, b, c, d are integers. If 3 + sqrt(7) is a root, which of the following must be also a root? (Note that x^n denotes the x raised to the power n, or x multiplied by itself n times. Also sqrt(u) denotes the square root of u, or the number which when multiplied by itself, gives the number u)? a. b. c. d. 3-sqrt(7) 3+sqrt(21) 5 sqrt(7) + sqrt(3)